The Journal of Scanning Microscopies


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April 5–7. Monterey, California, USA

PACS Vobiscum

PACS (Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme) numbers, based on the International Classification Scheme for Physics created by the American Institute of Physics and published by The International Council for Scientific and Technical Information, are a group of up to six alpha-numeric characters designed to classify in detail the technical content of scientific papers. In addition to making it easier for journal editors to identify suitable referees, when attached to the abstract of a manuscript they make it possible for automated search engines to rapidly and unambiguously identify the likely audience for the paper. This information can then be employed to compile one of the many computer generated abstract lists that are targeted to readers with specific interests (e.g., scanning microscopy, laser confocal imaging, etc.). Because the original PACS system was designed for the physical sciences it is somewhat deficient in biological content although it covers instrumentation issues quite acceptably.

Because the inclusion of one or more relevant PACS numbers on a published paper enhances the probability that it will be brought to the attention of researchers with an interest in that particular topic SCANNING has, for the past two years, requested that authors of manuscripts submitted for publication in the journal take the time to add their selection of appropriate PACS numbers to their paper.

Unfortunately a significant fraction of all manuscripts that are submitted during the past twelve months have not been accompanied by PACS data. Clearly many authors had simply not noted the requirement in the INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS, or they had no idea what PACS numbers were, or possibly they had no idea where to find a listing of PACS categories from which to work. In fact the complete list of PACS numbers can be downloaded from the American Institute of Physics website ( but it runs to some thirty pages of small print, and navigating this can be a daunting and confusing task. As an aid to prospective authors a list of the PACS numbers that are most relevant to the subject matter of SCANNING is given below. Please help us to help you and your paper get the maximum exposure by using this list to index your paper when you submit it to us. Thanks -- and pax vobiscum.

David C. Joy, Editor-in-Chief

PACS NumberTopic
01.00.00Communication, education, history, and philosophy
01.10.-mAnnouncements, news, and organizational activities
01.10.CrAnnouncements, news, and awards
01.10.FvConferences, lectures, and institutes
01.30.BbPublications of lectures (advanced institutes, summer schools, etc.)
01.30.CcConference proceedings
01.30.EeMonographs and collections
01.30.KjHandbooks, dictionaries, tables, and data compilations
01.30.MmTextbooks for graduates and researchers
01.30.PpTextbooks for undergraduates
01.30.RrSurveys and tutorial papers; resource letters
01.30.VvBook reviews
01.30.XxPublications in electronic media
(for the topic of electronic publishing, see 01.20)
01.50.LcLaboratory computer use
(see also 01.50.Pa)
02.30.NwFourier analysis
02.70.TtJustifications or modifications of Monte Carlo methods
02.70.UuApplications of Monte Carlo methods
05.10.LnMonte Carlo methods
05.40.FbRandom walks and Levy flights
(see also 47.53 Fractals in fluid dynamics)
06.00.00Metrology, measurements, and laboratory procedures
07.05.Pj Image processing
07.05.TpComputer modeling and simulation
07.10.Cm Micromechanical devices and systems
(for carolimeters as radiation detectors, see 29.40.Vj)
07.50.-eElectrical and electronic instruments and components
07.50.EkCircuits and circuit components
(see also 84.30 Electronic circuits and 84.32 Passive circuit components)
07.50.HpElectrical noise and shielding equipment
07.50.QxSignal processing electronics
(see also 84.40.Ua-in radiowave and microwave technology)
07.78.+sElectron, positron, and ion microscopes; electron diffractometers
07.79.-vScanning probe microscopes and components
(see also 68.37.-d in surfaces and interfaces)
07.79.CzScanning tunneling microscopes
07.79.FcNear-field scanning optical microscopes
07.79.LhAtomic force microscopes
07.79.PkMagnetic force microscopes
07.79.SpFriction force microscopes
07.81.+aElectron AND ion spectrometers
07.85.TtX-ray microscopes
25.30.BfElastic electron scattering
25.30.DhInelastic electron scattering to specific states
25.30.FjInelastic electron scattering to continuum
25.70.-zLow and intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions
29.30.DnElectron spectroscopy
29.40.WkSolid-state detectors
29.50.+vComputer interfaces
(see also 07.05.Wr in computers in experimental physics)
29.85.+cComputer data analysis
34.50.BwEnergy loss and stopping power
34.50.DyInteractions of atoms and molecules with surfaces; photon and electron emission;
34.80.-iElectron scattering
34.80.BmElastic scattering of electrons by atoms and molecules
34.80.DpAtomic excitation and ionization by electron impact
34.80.GsMolecular excitation and ionization by electron impact
34.80.HtDissociation and dissociative attachment by electron impact
34.80.KwElectron-ion scattering; excitation and ionization
41.00.00Electromagnetism; electron and ion optics
41.75.FrElectron and positron beams
41.85.GyChromatic and geometrical aberrations
42.30.KqFourier optics
42.30.LrModulation and optical transfer functions
42.30.RxPhase retrieval
42.30.SyPattern recognition
42.30.TzComputer vision; robotic vision
42.30.VaImage forming and processing
42.40.HtHologram recording and read-out methods
(see also 42.70.Ln Holographic recording materials; optical storage media)
42.40.JvComputer-generated holograms
42.40.KwHolographic interferometry; other holographic techniques
(see also 07.60.Ly Interferometers)
42.82.CrFabrication techniques; lithography, pattern transfer
61.10.DpTheories of diffraction and scattering
61.14.-xElectron diffraction and scattering
(for electron diffractometers, see 07.65)
61.14.DcTheories of diffraction and scattering
61.14.HgLow-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and reflection high-energy electron
61.14.LjConvergent-beam electron diffraction, selected-area electron diffraction, nanodiffraction
61.14.NmElectron holography
61.72.DdExperimental determination of defects by diffraction and scattering
61.72.FfDirect observation of dislocations and other defects (etch pits, decoration, electron microscopy, x-ray topography, etc.)
61.72.JiPoint defects (vacancies, interstitials, color centers, etc.) and defect clusters
61.72.LkLinear defects: dislocations, disclinations
61.72.MmGrain and twin boundaries
61.72.NnStacking faults and other planar or extended defects
61.72.QqMicroscopic defects (voids, inclusions, etc.)
61.72.SsImpurity concentration, distribution, and gradients
(for impurities in thin films, see 68.55.Ln; see also 66.30.Jt Diffusion of impurities)
61.72.TtDoping and impurity implantation in germanium and silicon
61.72.VvDoping and impurity implantation in III-V and II-VI semiconductors
61.72.WwDoping and impurity implantation in other materials
61.80.-xPhysical radiation effects, radiation damage (for photochemical reactions, see 82.50.-m)
61.80.FeElectrons and positron radiation effects
61.82.BgMetals and alloys
61.82.PvPolymers, organic compounds
61.82.RxNanocrystalline materials
61.85.+pChanneling phenomena (blocking, energy loss, etc.)
68.37.-dMicroscopy of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films
68.37.EfScanning tunneling microscopy (including chemistry induced with STM)
68.37.HkScanning electron microscopy (SEM) (including EBIC)
68.37.LpTransmission electron microscopy (TEM) (including STEM, HRTEM, etc.)
68.37.NqLow energy electron microscopy (LEEM)
68.37.PsAtomic force microscopy (AFM)
68.37.RtMagnetic force microscopy (MFM)
68.37.TjAcoustic force microscopy
68.37.UvNear-field scanning microscopy and spectroscopy
68.37.VjField emission and field-ion microscopy
68.37.XyScanning Auger microscopy, photoelectron microscopy
68.37.YzX-ray microscopy
68.49.JkElectron scattering from surfaces
73.63.HsQuantum wells
73.63.KvQuantum dots
73.63.NmQuantum wires
73.63.RtNanoscale contacts
78.60.HkCathodoluminescence, ionoluminescence
78.67.-nOptical properties of nanoscale materials and structures
78.67.BfNanocrystals and nanoparticles
78.67.DeQuantum wells
78.67.HcQuantum dots
78.67.LtQuantum wires
79.20.DsLaser-beam impact phenomena
79.20.FvElectron impact: Auger emission
79.20.HxElectron impact: secondary emission
81.05.BxMetals, semimetals, and alloys
81.05.CyElemental semiconductors
81.05.DzII-VI semiconductors
81.05.EaIII-V semiconductors
81.05.GcAmorphous semiconductors
81.05.HdOther semiconductors
81.07.-bNanoscale materials and structures: fabrication and characterization
81.07.BcNanocrystalline materials
81.15.JjIon and electron beam-assisted deposition; ion plating
81.70.JbChemical composition analysis, chemical depth and dopant profiling
82.80.PvElectron spectroscopy (x-ray photoelectron (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), etc.)
85.40.-eMicroelectronics: LSI, VLSI, ULSI; integrated circuit fabrication technology
(see also 85.45 Vacuum microelectronics)
85.40.HpLithography, masks and pattern transfer
Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) and devices, see 85.85.+j
85.40.LsMetallization, contacts, interconnects; device isolation
85.40.QxMicrocircuit quality, noise, performance, and failure analysis
85.40.RyImpurity doping, diffusion and ion implantation technology
85.45.DbField emitter and arrays, cold electron emitters
87.50.-aEffects of radiation and external fields on biomolecules, cells and higher organisms
87.50.GiIonizing radiations (ultraviolet, x-rays, y-rays, ions, electrons, positrons, neutrons, and mesons, etc.)